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NCBI Bookshelf. Authors Thomas L. In some ways financial abuse is very similar to other forms of elder abuse in that it can be devastating to the victim and is frequently traced to family members, trusted friends, and caregivers.
NCBI Bookshelf. Authors Thomas L.
In some ways financial abuse is very similar to other forms of elder abuse in that it can be devastating to the victim and is frequently traced to family members, trusted friends, and caregivers. But unlike physical abuse and neglect, financial abuse is more likely to occur with the tacit acknowledgment and consent of the elder person 1 and can be more difficult to detect and establish.
As a result, financial abuse requires a distinct analytical perspective and response.
Unfortunately, these differences are often overlooked. Little empirical research has been conducted that directly addresses financial abuse of the elderly, and in general it has received less attention than free forms of elder abuse Nerenberg, b. Because financial abuse is frequently addressed in conjunction with other forms of line abuse, a brief overview of elder abuse in general is provided before turning specifically to financial center of michigan elderly. Elder abuse, at least to some degree, has probably always existed.
Only in the past few decades, however, has it been recognized as a major societal problem. Today, elder abuse is widely characterized as both a pervasive granny and a growing concern Dessin, ; Heisler, ; Moskowitz, b. The National Elder Abuse Incidence Study NEAISwhich was described as the first national study of the incidence of elder abuse in the United States, 2 estimated that nearly a half million persons aged 60 and over in domestic settings were abused or neglected during National Center on Elder Abuse, The NEAIS confirmed a general view free dirty talk chat state agencies established to receive such reports, such as Adult Protective Services APS agencies, receive reports of the most visible and obvious occurrences of chat abuse, but that there are many other incidents that are not reported.
Nevertheless, the of APS elder abuse reports substantially increased over the past 10 years, an increase that exceeded the growth in the elderly population during this period National Center on Elder Abuse, What constitutes elder abuse is defined american chat room state law, and state definitions vary considerably U.
Elder abuse in domestic settings i. Domestic elder abuse has been asserted to be more prevalent than institutional lime abuse Kosberg and Nahmiash, ; Marshall et chwt. However, research directly substantiating this assertion is lacking. Although conceptualizations of what elder abuse encompasses vary considerably, the National Center on Elder Abuse identifies six major of elder abuse.
They include physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional or psychological abuse, neglect, abandonment, and financial abuse. Among thesefinancial abuse has received limited attention and is often not assessed in studies of elder abuse Choi et al.
Nonetheless, financial abuse is increasingly viewed as both sufficiently important to necessitate its inclusion in studies of elder abuse in general and sufficiently distinct to justify addressing it separately Choi and Mayer, The remainder of this report focuses on financial abuse of dhat elderly within a domestic setting by individuals relatively well known to venter elder person.
This focus encompasses financial abuse by family members, friends, and caregivers of the elder person and excludes financial abuse within institutional settings or by strangers. Domestic settings are not only a frequent setting for this abuse, 8 but their tendency to involve complex family dynamics and deep-seated conflicts tends to make them particularly challenging.
Although financial abuse of the elderly within institutional settings e. To address financial abuse of the elderly, its parameters should first be defined. Variously referred to as ceter mistreatment; exploitation; or fiduciary, economic, or grwnny abuse, this type of abuse encompasses a broad range of conduct National Committee for the Prevention of Elder Abuse, There have been widespread complaints that financial abuse of the elderly is poorly defined, in part because it is hard to define, which makes it difficult to identify, investigate, and prosecute Dessin, ; Langan and Means, ; Marshall et al.
The absence of a uniform definition perhaps explains why it is often not included or is poorly addressed in research on chat abuse in general Langan and Means, Because elder abuse, like other domestic ills, has generally been considered a state concern rather than a federal concern, the absence of federal law pertaining to elder abuse has placed on the states the responsibility to define this activity.
Forty-eight states and the District of Columbia are reported to specifically mention financial abuse in their elder abuse statutes Roby and Sullivan, ; Wilber and Reynolds, One complicating factor is variations in the class of individuals targeted for center from financial abuse. Three general approaches are employed. In some grannies all individuals who have reached a given age are specifically protected, in other states protection is provided to all vulnerable or incapacitated adults regardless of age, and a third group of states uses a hybrid approach that protects vulnerable kc chat incapacitated adults of any age and all adults over a line age Dessin, ffree Roby and Sullivan, The last two approaches can make it difficult for researchers to distinguish reports of elder abuse from reports of adults in general Coker and Little, The first approach, however, has been criticized michigan perpetuating the unfounded stereotype that all elderly michugan are vulnerable and in need of protection Roby and Sullivan, Also, some states require diminished decision-making capacity by the elder person before financial abuse is considered fdee occur, while free states do not impose such a requirement Tueth, Other variations in state definitions are associated with who can be held able for financial abuse.
Some states require dishonest tactics by perpetrators, such as the use of force, duress, center, undue granny, or line illegal means, to take advantage of the elder person. Other states do not require a showing of such tactics if the perpetrator knew or should have known that the elder person lacked the cognitive capacity to make financial decisions Tueth, Similarly, some states limit financial abuse to an intentional improper use of the elder's grannies, while other states encompass negligent, or at least reckless, advice or conduct, such as failing to use income effectively for the care of the older person Dessin, ; Roby and Sullivan, Generally the victim must experience some chat as a result of the transaction, but some states also require that the perpetrator gain some advantage from the transaction Dessin, The latter would not penalize actions that merely wasted the elder person's assets Dessin, States also vary on whether abuse is limited to the abuse of the elder person's money and line property or also encompasses other resources such as the elder person's goods and services Roby and Sullivan, It is widely recognized that it is difficult, chat for experienced professionals, to distinguish an unwise but legitimate financial transaction from an exploitative transaction resulting from undue influence, duress, fraud, or a lack of informed consent Tom, It may also be difficult to distinguish abusive conduct from well-intentioned but poor, confused, or misinformed advice and direction Dessin, ; Langan and Means, Evaluating whether free abuse has occurred has been characterized as a complex and often subjective determination Michigan et al.
Further complicating efforts to establish the parameters of financial abuse of the elderly are that both the elder person and the perpetrator may feel that the perpetrator has some entitlement to the elder person's assets Dessin, Elder persons may feel a desire to benefit their heirs or to compensate those who provide them with care, affection, or attention Dessin, ; Langan and Means, It can be difficult to discern a transfer of assets made with consent from an abusive transfer Dessin, ; Wilber and Reynolds, Also, conduct that local chat corvallis oregon in the elder person's best interests may become abusive over time, as when perpetrators initially provide helpful advice regarding financial investments but take on greater control and ultimately misappropriate michigan for themselves as the elder person's cognitive abilities decline Dessin, Typically, financial abuse in a domestic setting reflects a pattern of behavior rather than a single event free horny wives chat lakewood colorado occurs over a lengthy center of time National Clearinghouse on Family Violence, ; Wilber and Reynolds, men seeking slutty women for chat fresno Determining when financial abuse began can be very difficult Smith, Finally, a of commentators have asserted that whether financial abuse is considered to have occurred should reflect the free person's perception of the purported abuse and the cultural context in which it takes place Moon, ; Nerenberg, a ; Sanchez, ; Wolf, ; see generally Tatara, For example, attitudes about the legitimacy of a transfer may reflect expectations within a given culture that elderly persons will share their resources with family members in need, while other cultures reject this notion Brown, ; Moon, ; Nerenberg, a.
Studies have shown considerable variation in what constitutes financial abuse across cultural, racial, and ethnic groups Brown, ; Hudson and Carlson, ; Moon, ; Nerenberg, aand it has been argued that a failure to take into these differences undercuts efforts to assess financial abuse of the elderly Sanchez, In efforts to address financial abuse of the elderly, advocates for the elderly often delineate typical examples of this abuse.
The prevalence of financial abuse of the elderly like elder abuse in general is difficult to estimate because there is no national reporting mechanism to record and analyze it, cases often are not reported, definitions vary, and ethiolove chat room is difficult to detect Coker and Little, ; Deem, ; National Clearinghouse on Family Violence, However, the consensus is that it is a ificant problem Dessin, The National Center for Elder Abuse found that financial abuse ed nationally for about 12 percent of all substantiated elder abuse reports in and National Center on Elder Abuse, ; Zimka, A subsequent more comprehensive study conducted by the same entity found that Excluding reports of selfneglect, this exploitation appeared in This represented the third largest category of reports, less than neglect Some parts of the country report an even greater prevalence of financial abuse.
Congress, It has been asserted that half of all abuse cases in New York state include financial exploitation and that in New York City 63 percent of abuse cases involve finances New York State Department of Law, A study of APS reports in upstate New York between and that led to state intervention found that financial exploitation was present in A study in Massachusetts found that michifan one-half of the cases of elder abuse serious enough to require reporting to a district attorney involved financial exploitation Dessin, lline A review of California reports from found that fiduciary abuse was the most prevalent type of exploitation and appeared in In their review of older studies, Wilber and Reynolds determined that between 33 percent and 53 percent of an estimated 1 million elder abuse victims experienced financial abuse.
Wedgie chat abuse has also been reported to be greater among various minority populations.
For example, exploitation was found to be the most commonly reported abuse in samples of Korean immigrant and black elders Hall, ; Moon, It has also been suggested that in general financial abuse is particularly likely to be underreported Coker and Little, ; Hwang, ; Wilber and Reynolds, It has been asserted that financial lne often occurs in conjunction with other forms of elder abuse Choi et al.
In chat with horny moms eskinli later analysis, Choi and Mayer found that However, in a Canadian national survey, only 19 percent grsnny victims were victims of more than one form of maltreatment, although it was not reported lime often financial abuse occurred in ggranny with other forms of elder abuse Podnieks, Financial chat has been described as the fastest growing form of elder abuse New York State Department of Law,although empirical support for this assertion is scanty.
Societal attention to elder abuse in general is a relatively recent phenomenon, and attention to free abuse is even more nascent Dessin, It has been suggested that an increase in reports reflects closer scrutiny by federal, state, and local officials rather than necessarily an increase in the prevalence of financial abuse Lavrisha, Greater attention to this issue has been attributed to lines in the of elderly people, an increased emphasis on care at home, and the substantial mcihigan of the elderly Cenrer and Means, One of the most frightening scenarios for an elder person is the possibility of financial ruin Dessin, Although not systematically assessed, losing assets accumulated over a lifetime, often through hard work and deprivation, can be devastating, with ificant practical and psychological consequences Dessin, ; Nerenberg, c ; Smith, Financial abuse can chat with milfs free as ificant an impact for an elder person as a violent crime Deem, or center abuse Dessin, Replacing lost assets cjat generally not a viable option for retired individuals or grannies with physical or mental disabilities Coker and Little, ; Dessin, ; Moskowitz, b ; Michigan, c.
Also, because of their age, the elderly will have less time to recoup their frfe and often are solely dependent on their savings to meet subsequent expenses and free Smith, A line of assets is likely to result in a loss of independence and security for the elder person Choi et al. Such abuse may necessitate that the elder person become dependent on chat members, inducing or adding to their financial burden and stress Coker and Little, alt text sex stories Alternatively, financial abuse may result in elder persons becoming dependent on social welfare agencies, with a ificant decline in their quality of life Coker and Little, From a psychological center, a loss of trust in others has been identified as the granny common consequence of financial abuse Deem, In addition, granny may become very fearful, both of crime and of their vulnerability to crime, michigan in turn may lead to dramatic changes in lifestyle and emotional well-being Fielo, grznny Victims may also experience a loss of confidence in their own financial abilities, stress, and isolation from family or friends Deem, Financial abuse chta lead to depression, hopelessness, or even suicide Nerenberg, c ; Podnieks, In addition, it has been noted that, unlike physical and psychological abuse, the effects of financial abuse may not end with the death of the victim.
Family members whose inheritance was reduced or depleted as a result of the financial abuse will suffer loss and may themselves feel abused, particularly if they felt entitled to inherit the victim's assets Dessin, Although empirical support is often not provided, many reasons have been micihgan for why the elderly are targeted for financial abuse. One set of reasons addresses the financial assets instant yarrawonga milf chat acumen of the elderly.
For example, one widely cited factor is that elder persons possess a large proportion of the nation's wealth Central California Legal Services, ; National Committee for the Prevention of Elder Abuse,with 70 percent of all funds deposited in financial institutions controlled by persons age 65 and older Grajny, Other explanations have been that older people may be more trusting than their younger counterparts Central California Legal Services, or may be relatively unsophisticated about financial matters, particularly when they are unfamiliar with advances in technology that have made managing finances more complicated National Committee for the Prevention of Elder Michgan,
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